GRAMMATICAL PART IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE:
We use the present simple tense to express usual and repeat action, face, event, habit or situation. E.g. I go to school.
Subject (a) + Verb + Object (b) E g. I study English every day.
I. Simple PAST:
Subject + V2 + Object
E.g. Two years ago, I studied English in England.
II. Simple Future
If you are having problems, I will help you study English.
E.g. I am going to study English next year.
- Present CONTINOUS
The present continues tense is used to talk about actions that are happening at this current moment. E.g. I am going to school.
Subject (a) + Be + Verb-ING + Object (b) E.g. I am studying English now.
I. Past CONTINUOUS:
E.g.I was studying English when you called
II. Future CONTINUOUS:
I will be studying English when you arrive tonight. I am going to be studying English when you arrive tonight.
- Present PERFECT Simple:
We use the present perfect tense to express about the actions which happened in unspecific time in the past and still have the result for the present. E.g. I have seen this movie.
Subject (a) + Have + Verb 3 + Object (b)
I have studied English in several different countries.
- PAST PERFECT SIMPLE:
I had studied a little English before I moved to the Abroad.
II. Future PERFECT SIMPLE:
will have studied every tense by the time I finish this course.
I am going to have studied every tense by the time I finish this course. (portal.onlinejambclass.com)
- Present PERFECT CONTINUOUS:
I have been studying English for five years.
I. Past PERFECT CONTINUOUS:
I had been studying English for five years before I moved to the U.S.
II. Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been studying English for over two hours by the time you arrive.
I am going to have been studying English for over two hours by the time you arrive.
The simple future tense is used when we plan or make a decision to do something. Noting is said about the time in the future. E.g.I will play football tomorrow.
🔑Positive: S+Will+Vinf+ Obj
-BASIC GRAMMAR- PARTS OF SPEECH:
Grammar is the system and structure of a language. (portal.onlinejambclass.com) The rules of grammar help us decide the order we put words in and which form of a word to use.
When you’re talking about grammar, it’s useful to know some basic terms. The following are called parts of speech and they each have their own function.
Verbs are often known as ‘doing words’. They can also show ‘having’ or ‘being’.
The horse jumped the fence.
The rider had a fall.
The rider is not hurt.
Nouns are the names of people, places, things and ideas. There are four kinds of noun.
Common nouns – dog, computer, river, biscuit
Collective nouns (names of a group of something) – a herd of cows, a flock of sheep
🔎PROPER NOUNS (the names of people, places and so on) – Nigeria, Lagos, Online Jamb Class Academy.
Abstract nouns (names of things we can’t see or touch) – love, hope, fear, decision, poverty
Adjectives describe nouns.
🖊She wore a blue dress.
🖊The small dog barked at me.
🖊A cool breeze made her shiver.
Adverbs give us extra information about how, where or when a verb happens. For example:
🖋He drove slowly.
🖊She spoke loudly.
🖊The article is well written.
Pronouns are usually small words which stand in place of a noun, often to avoid repeating the noun. They include words such as I, you, he, we, hers, they, it.
Prepositions come before nouns or pronouns and usually show a connection.
🖊Your pen is on the desk.
🖊The children went to the park.
🖊We rested under the tree.
🖊OJCA hid behind the door.
Conjunctions link words, sentences or parts of a sentence together.
🖋The rug is blue and cream.
🖋The road was busy. And it was loud.
🖊I closed the door but I didn’t lock it because I thought she was still inside.
There are two kinds of article: definite and indefinite.
The definite article is ‘the’. It is used to identify a specific thing.
⚪️The indefinite article is ‘a’ and ‘an’. It is used to refer to something in general.
🔘The cat sat on the mat. (We know which cat and which mat.)
🔘I need a ruler. (We do not need a specific ruler, any will do.)
🔘The car would struggle to get up a hill. (We can identify which car, but are referring to any hill.)
▪️PART OF SPEECH:
Part of speech basically indicate function of a word in a sentence. They may not remain same always they change category according to their actual usage in a sentence. (Source: portal.onlinejambclass.com) They are classified into 9 groups according to their functions in sentences.
NOUNS: are the naming words, name of any thing( stone, wood), idea (freedom, loyalty, patience) activity or game( speech, hockey), feelings(pain, happiness) place (Nigeria , France) and person ( OJCA, Muhammad).
Noun are open class mean they are not fix or limited.
They have flexibility and grow as a language develops. New words are created or generated at daily base.
For example OJCA Citadel team wear green uniform, here “green is #adjective as telling something about noun, but word #green is often used as noun now a days as some one said Greens played well. Here green is a noun mean used as a noun. Here another example: They swim•••
🟥swim is verb but we often say swimming is my hobby. So swimming is noun here.
••POINTS TO NOTE:
So keep in mind part of speech never concern with fix rules they vary according to function of words, their usage.
They may generate as word Fantagon is name of medicine but it is generated with compounding of adjective fatigue and verb gone.
Word spoke is verb but when we say His spoken is not good. Then spoken is used as noun.
(detail topic will be discussed in role of part of speech in spoken English, follow us on Facebook @ Fb.com/OnlineJambClassAcademy)
Pronouns stand in for nouns in a sentence.
They used in place of noun in a sentence. They are fix
and never alter, they remain same in all condition.
Examples: I, you, he, she, it, ours, them, who, which,
Verbs are doing/ action words that tell action and state of action that happens in a sentence. Verbs change form based on tense (present, past) and count distinction (singular or plural). Examples: sing, dance, believes, seemed, finish, eat, drink, be, became.
But like noun they too are open, infinite and unlimited.
They to use on alternative bases as word corner is a noun but we may use it as a verb: please corner the wrapper. Chair is noun but we may say He chaired the meeting. That’s amazing right? We know that OJCA is the best for you…Now let continue.
Adjectives describe/ qualify nouns and pronouns. They specify which one, how much, what kind, and more.
Adjectives allow readers and listeners to use their senses to imagine something more clearly. Examples: hot, lazy, funny, unique, bright, beautiful, poor, smooth.
Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives, and even other adverbs. They specify when, where, how, and why something happened and to what extent or how often.
Examples: softly, lazily, often, only, hopefully, softly, sometimes.
Prepositions show a relationship between a noun or pronoun and the other words in a sentence. They are fix and limited, they mere change category.
For example Pen and Hand both are noun, independently they describe nothing but when we put an preposition in between them they show the relationship between pen and hand : pen in hand.
Examples: up, over, against, by, for, into, close to, out of, apart from.
Conjunction are joining words they may join phrases, words and clauses in a sentence.
They too are finite and limited. They never change category they remain same in usage.. Examples: and, but, or, so, yet, with.
Interjections are expressions that can stand on their own or be contained within sentences. These words and phrases often carry strong emotions and convey reactions. They are open, infinite and be unlimited. Alas, hurrh.
But emotion and feelings may change too so new interjection may generated.
🕑What is INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN AND ADJECTIVE but if some one show anger or surprise by saying what! Fantastic! Oh my gosh! Pity (noun and verb) but here it is interjection.
♦️ARTICLE / DETERMINER:
Article A, an, the, are specific in usage .
They are fix and unchangeable.
A and An are used with 1 and countable unite where as the is used for specific things. (Source: portal.onlinejambclass.com).
A is used when initial sound of a word is consonant either what would be the letter. For Example #U is considered to be a vowel letter but if it pronounce aa sound then it is counted as vowel otherwise it is treated as a consonant.
As in word Unit initial sound is yaa so it is consonant but in umbrella sound vary so it is treaded as vowel In MPA initial sound is aa (aam) so it is vowel sound so it required an instead of a. Hour, FA, year all are counted as vowel sound.
OJCA POINTS TO NOTE:
So part of speech are flexible, they are not fix or finite. They may change their labels according to their usage.
(part of speech plays a signified role in vocabulary building and giving style and polishing the language. In next post will discuss their role in language learning in detail), you can check on our portal @portal.onlinejambclass.com or register for your classes with us.
HOW TO SPEAK ENGLISH FLUENTLY: 10 SIMPLE TIPS!!
- Be realistic about your English learning goals. do not expect your english to be as good as that of a native speaker soon after taking up the language. It takes time._
- Practice speaking: 🔊as well, not just reading and listening. While reading and listening can help you learn a lot about the language, the only way to speak better English is by speaking it your self.
- Practice speaking 🔊: when ever you get a chance. Do not pass up a chance to speak English when ever one arises.
- Get native English-🔊speaking and practice speaking with them. If you want to speak English like a native. You should have friends who speak it like you would like to.
- Do not be afraid of making mistakes. Mistakes are part of learning; they help you know where you need to make improvement to become a better English speaker.
- Read your favorite books a loud. Reading a loud will improve your confidence and enhance your flow when speaking in other situations_.
- Try thinking in English – When you start seeing things and deliberating in English, you will notice and improvement in your speaking skills as well.
- Have confidence whenever you speak Always speak with confidence as this will improve the rate at which you master the language.
- Try to learn from everyone — while surrounding your self with people who speak perfect English is a great way to learn, You can also learn from those who make mistakes in their speaking_.
- Practice speaking in front of a mirror — this should be especially handy when preparing for public speaking events as it will boost your confidence.
HELLO EVERYONE! Hope you really enjoying your reading classes with Online Jamb Class Academy!!! Now let’s change the atmosphere to look at English Language that related with phrasal verbs. We should know for use in Our exams and workplace as below:
Have a nice read📖📖📚
📌Phrasal verbs that you should know:
- Call off = cancel
- Turn down = reject
- Bring up = mention
- Come up= arise/ produce
- Hand over = relinquish / give a chance
- Take over take control /responsibility
- Take up= require
- Get on= continue / have a good relationship
- Talk over = discuss / interrupt
- Use up = exhaust/use completely
- Look forward to = await
- Go on = continue
- Catch up = discuss latest news
- Fill in = complete
- Hand in = submit
- Look up=find/search
- Look into = check/ investigate
- Figure out = understand / solve
- Go over = review
- Show up = arrive
- Ring up call
- Go back = return to a place
- Pick out= choose
- chip in help
- Break in on = interrupt
- Come apart = separate
- Go ahead = start / proceed
- Cut in interrupt =
- Own up= confess
- Figure out = discover
- Get away = escape
- Work out= exercise
- Hang in = stay positive
- Put down = insult
- Pass out = faint
- Leave out = omit/ skip
- Show off = boast / brag
- Peter out = finish / come to an end gradually
- Lay off dismiss
- Take on = employ( someone)
- Cross out = delete
- Sort out = solve
/ cancel / erase
- Make out = understand / hear
- Abide by = follow (a rule / decision / instruction)
- Pile up = accumulate
- Pig put = eat a lot
- Pick up = collect
- mix up = confuse
- Make of understand / have an opinion
- Opt for = choose
- Pass back = return
- Patch up = fix/ make things better
- Plump for = choose
- Polish off = finish / consume
- Decide upon = choose / select
- Die down = decrease
- Get along = leave
- Hook up = meet (someone)
- Jack up= increase sharply
- Kick about = discuss
- Talk about = discuss
- Kick out = expel
- Lay on = organise/ supply 65. Link up = connect /join
- Make after = chase
- Make away with = steal
- Big up = exaggerate the importance
- Blow up = explode
- Book in check in at a hotel =
- Call up= telephone
- Cap off = finish / complete
- Care for = like
- carry off = win/succeed
- Carry on = continue
- Add on = include
- Ask over = invite
- Back away = retreat / go backwards
- Back off = retreat
- Bag out = criticize
- Bull up = confuse / complicate
- Bear on = influence / affect
- Give up = quit / stop trying
- Keep on = continue
- Put off = postpone
- Turn up = appear suddenly
- Take after = resemble
- Bring up = raise (children)
- Fill out = complete a form 90. Drop out of = leave school
- Do over = repeat a job / task
- Fill up = fill to capacity
- Look over = examine / check
- Put away = save / store 95. Put out = extinguish
- Set up = arrange/ begin 97. Throw away = discard
- Cut down on= curtail (expenses)
- Try out = test
- Tu off = repulse
- Call on = visit
- Go through = use up/ consume
- Check up on= examine / investigate
- wait on = serve
- get rid of = eliminate/ eradicate/
- Get through with = finish
- Look down on = despise
- Look up to = respect & admire
- Make sure of = verify
- Put up with = tolerate
- Run out of exhaust supply
- Think back on = recall/ remember
- Walk out on = abandon
- Get by= survive
- Get up = arise
- Grow up = get older
- Walk up = arouse from sleep
- Back up = support
- Make up for = compensate.
Also is a conjunction, linking word. It is used to add
an positive, agreeing thought. It is commonly used in writing.
E.g. She also had a sense of responsibility about it.
Besides means as well, in addition
E.g. What do you like besides the apple?
But is used to join two ideas that are opposites.
E.g. I am very hungry, but the fridge is empty.
Even if means whether or not. ( OJCA) It is used to emphasize that something will still be true if another thing happens.
E.g. I still going to go swimming in the sea even if it rains.
Further is an adverb. It means Also, additionally,
E.g. He is very clever, further his father is very rich.👈
However can express a contract by Using the adverb however with two sentences. It is always followed by a Comma.
E.g. He was feeling very ill. However, he went to School.
Therefore Is used to show the result/effect of an action.
E.g. She came first. Therefore she got a good seat.
Unless means; except on the condition that. Unless needs a main clause to make a complete sentence.
E.g. Unless you are to tired let’s go for a walk at the park.
Unlike means different from, not similar to.
E.g. OJCA is completely unlike his father JAMB.
Whereas is used to show contract.
E.g. She is very funny whereas he is boring.
HOW TO LEARN ENGLISH LANGUAGE:
You should understand the main idea of most speech in a standard dialect.
You should demonstrate an emerging awareness of culturally implied meaning beyond the surface meaning of the text.
You should be understood without difficulty by natives, and converse in a clear and participatory fashion. You should be able to initiate, sustain, and bring closure to a wide variety of communicative tasks.
You Should be able to narrate and describe concrete and abstract topics using sustained, connected discourse.
You should easily follow the essential points of written text.
You should be able to understand parts of texts which are conceptually abstract and linguistically complex.
- Writing ✍️:
You should be able to address a variety of topics with significant precision and detail. You should be able to write competency about topics relating to particular interests and write clearly about special fields of competence. You should be able to organize writings with a sense of theoretical structure.
- Cultural awareness: Someone’s cultural awareness is their understanding of the differences between themselves and people from other backgrounds, especially difference in attitudes and values.
Verbs- Informal & Formal
Say sorry Apologize,
Go up: Increase
Go down: Decrease
Set Up: Establish
Look at: Examine
Blow Up: Explode
Find out: Discover
Bring About: Cause
Put off: Delay Postpone.
Rack up: Accumulate
Make Up: Fabricate
Stand for: Represent
Find out: Discover, Ascertain
Leave out: Omit
Point Out: Indicate
Go against: Oppose
Get intouch with: Contact
Need to: Required
Think about: Consider
Get : Obtain
Seem : Appear
Put Up: Tolerate
Deal with: Handle
Block : Undermine
Ring up: Call
Keep : Retain
Free : Release
Fill in: Substitute
Show Up: Arrive
Candidates are required to comment their informal and formal words below.
Have great moment!