Hello candidates, last class we discussed how Complement and Adjunct are used in a sentence, the topic for today is lexis and structure definition in the use of English-language, we mean what is lexis?, what is structure?, what are lexical items? or verbs?, what is lexis and structure definition answer will be provided to all these questions in this class session.

I believe you may all have heard of LEXIS and STRUCTURE.
here is my question, do you know what LEXIS and STRUCTURE imply?

There are two areas in English language, which are lexis and structure,

What is Lexis ?

Lexis is an aspect of English language where sentences are predicated on a system of the relationship between words.
So simply Lexis is the set of all words and phrases in language, and those words or phrases are called Lexical items, you know in the use of English language as a subject we don’t really need definition,  so straight to business,top↑
we have eight lexical items which are ;

a] Noun e.g Sola, Lagos, Goat and tree, etc.

b] Pronoun e.g She, he, they, who and we, etc.

c] Verb e.g Dance, eat and go, etc.

d] Adverb e.g Everyday, everything, everyone, everywhere, enough and quickly, etc.

e] Adjective e.g beautiful and handsome, etc.

f] Interjection e.g Oh!, etc.

g] Preposition e.g Under, etc.

h] Conjunction e.g So, and, since, but, because and between, etc.

All this are called Lexical items or Lexis.

Aspect Of Lexis In The Use Of English Language.

As a student sitting for any English examination either O’level or A’level even if you are in higher institution, there are seven aspects of English language that you must have prepare your self for,
These are;
a] Semantics : semantics in English language simply means the meanings of words.

b] Diction : diction in English language means the appropriate use of words, that is, most appropriate words

c] Synonymy : synonymy means similar words, that is, nearest in meaning.

d] Antonymy : antonymy means opposite words, that is, opposite in meaning.

I believe we are all familiar with Synonymy and antonymy right ?

e] Polysemy : from the word Poly, guess and tell me what do you think is the meaning, think first before continue reading

What polysemy means in English language is words with more than one meaning, So do you guess right?

f] Homophones : homophones are similar-sounding words, that is, word that sound similar.
E.g Tall and Raw, look and hook or book, rich and reach, Ruth and route or root, etc.

g] Collocation : collocation in English language means the company that a word keeps.

Those are the seven aspects of lexis that we have in English language.

Note : for a student sitting for Jamb, Waec, Neco or any O’level examination, under Lexis, you should prepare yourself with most appropriate word, nearest in meaning and opposite in meaning even if you are sitting for common entrance examination.

And most important don’t regard the dictionary as your final authority,

What am saying is this, when a given word is used in a sentence, don’t use dictionary to find the meaning of the words but instead use the environment, the surrounding and the circumstances of the word.

Note : sometimes words in a sentence have different meaning with the dictionary meaning, because the meaning of a word in a sentence depends on the environment of the word and how it is used in the sentence, especially in an examination.↑


In English language, Structure is refer to as the definite established rules of a language, for the combination of words to be meaningful in that language,

So basically, Structure is used to arrange or put words together in orderly ways by combining the words (lexical items) together with the rules.

a] Many a /him

a) boys/know
b) boys/knows
c) boy/knows
d) boy/know

What do you think the answer would be?

The first thing to do is analysis the sentence or statement,

In order to analyze this, we need to check whether the sentence contain the four elements of sentences, I hope you still remember what those are?
They are SPCA
is the subject, that is, the doer of the action.

is the predicator, that is, the verb, the action words.

is the complement, that is, what is been talked about in the statement or the receiver of the action.

And the last,
is the adjunct, that is, the adverb and adverbials, and you should always remember that, adjunct is not compulsory in forming a sentence.

So look at the above question, and see if it has all the element,

Remember that singular noun goes with singular verb and plural noun goes with plural verb,

Note whenever you see many a the noun that preceded it must be singular and the verb should be singular also.

Seeing many a boy mean the same thing as many boys

So the correct answer to that question will be;

many a boy / knows him,

I believe you know the reason why the verb is singular (knows)? It because the noun is singular,

More Examples

Example 2

The teachers, the principals, our parents or my john to blame

a) is
b) are

Think first, what do you think the answer should be?

First find the subject,
You see all those, The teachers, the principals, our parents all that is to deceive you,
The subject there is Mr john

Because the first three noun ( the teachers, the principals and our parents) are not the or with the subject,

Assuming the question was like this,

b) The teachers, the principals, our parents and Mr john to blame.

You can see that this one is different from the above one because in this one, the subjects are join together with and not or

So the answer to the question is, is because Mr john is the subject and it is singular, but to that second example it is are because all the noun mention there are the subject,

How can lexis be organised?

We have already encountered some ways in which lexical items can be organised. We’ll explore a few other ways of doing it and see if these ways of organisation are related in any way.

Alphabetical listing

Items in dictionaries and encyclopaedias are listed under headwords, with an entry or a mini article following each. Items are alphabetised or placed in alphabetical order. This is useful because it is largely unambiguous and readers can find items fairly easily.

Word class

We know that lexical items can be classified according to word class (or parts of speech) – nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, etc. – and most dictionaries give word class labels to lexical items as a matter of course. Apart from getting information about use, we also need to be aware of word class for spelling, to distinguish between nouns (eg licencepractice) and verbs (eg licensepractise).

Within this, we can also make distinctions between grammatical words and lexical words.


We also regularly make distinctions between common words and obscure words. With lots of texts that have now been collected in corpora (this is the plural form of the singular corpus, meaning ‘body’ or ‘collection’), it has been possible to group lexical items into frequency bands. We noted earlier that we  groups items into five frequency bands. Items in the five bands make up 95% of all spoken and written English.

  • BAND 1. Many of the words in this band are the common grammar words such as theandof and to, which are an essential part of the way we put things together. Also in this band are the very frequency vocabulary items, such as likegopaperreturn and so on. There are approximately 700 words in this band.
  • BAND 2. This band includes words such as arguebridgedangerfemaleobvious and sea. There are approximately 1,200 words in this band. Bands 1 and 2 together account for about 75% of all English usage.
  • BAND 3. This band includes words such as aggressivemedicine and tactic. There are approximately 1,500 words in this band.
  • BAND 4. This band includes words such as accuracydurationmiserablepuzzle and rope. There are approximately 3,200 words  in this words in this band.
  • BAND 5. This band includes words such as abundantcrossroadsfearless and missionary. There are approximately 8,100 words in this band.
  • UNBANDED. The rest of the items (about 5% of English lexical items) are unbanded; examples include buccaneerconflagrationepiloguejoust and progeny.

Grouping by ‘acquisition level’ for graded reading

Language teachers also often find it helpful to have ‘controlled vocabulary’ in the language readers. This is known as the ‘vocabulary control movement’, and very well known listing is Michael West’s A General Service List. The list is still used today and forms the basis of the principles underlying the Longman Structural Readers. A mix of criteria have been used for categorising vocabulary, including frequency, prominence, universality (words useful in all countries), utility (enabling discussion on as wide a subject range as possible), their usefulness in terms of definition value.

West’s list is aimed at second- or foreign-language learners of English. We can also think about how first-language or mother-tongue learners of English might acquire some lexical items first and others later in more formal educational settings.

Lexical fields

If you have consulted a Ojcas before, you will be aware of how vocabulary can be grouped according to its semantic or lexical field, such as military ranks, colour terms, emotions or birds. These theories attempt to provide systems based on general-particular and part-whole relationships. An example of a general-particular system would be the system based on vehicles (the lexical field), which would include particular vehicles like car (and more specifically saloon/sedanestate car/station-wagoncoupéhatchbackconvertiblefour-wheel drive, etc.), lorryvantraintramvan and so on. An example of a part-whole system would be the system based on car which would include part of a car like wing/fenderbumperwindscreen/windshieldboot/trunkbonnet/hoodsteering wheeldashboardtyre, etc.

Associative fields

The Swiss linguist “Ferdinand de Saussure” made a distinction between associative relations and syntagmatic relations. We tend to use the term paradigmatic relations instead of associative relations today.

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The paradigmatic relation is to do with choice. When you form a sentence, you need to (consciously or unconsciously) make a lexical selection at different points in the sentence. In the sentence above, for example, by choosing girl, you’d have rejected other possibilities like person or child. Language use therefore involves lexical choice.  The items girlperson and child have a relationship in absentia because by choosing one, the others will be absent.

But girl doesn’t only relate to personchild and so on; it relates to theridiculousfell and so on. It relates to the items that are present. This is the syntagmatic relation, or the relations in praesentia since they items co-occur with girl.


You can probably also think about other ways of organising the lexicon: on the levels of formality (very formal, formal, neutral, informal, very colloquial), on the level of specialisation or technicality, on the level of geography (eg British v American items like spanner v wrench), on the source of the items.

Core vocabulary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) provides the following diagram to characterise English vocabulary as seen by the compilers/editors of the dictionary.

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Here is their explanation of the diagram.

The centre is occupied by the ‘common’ words, in which literary and colloquial usage meet. ‘Scientific’ and ‘foreign’ words enter the common language mainly through literature; ‘slang’ words ascend through colloquial use; the ‘technical’ terms of crafts and processes, and the ‘dialect’ words, blend with the common language both in speech and literature. Slang also touches on one side of the technical terminology of trades and occupations, as in ‘nautical slang’, ‘Public School slang’, ‘the slang of the Stock Exchange’, and on another passes into true dialect. Dialects similarly pass into foreign languages. Scientific terminology passes on one side into purely foreign words, on another it blends with the technical vocabulary of art and manufactures. It is not possible to fix the point at which the ‘English Language’ stops, along any of these diverging lines.

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They suggest that it is not clear where a word ceases to be part of the English language as there are different levels of technicality, foreignness, and so on. An item like heart is core and should be located in the centre of the diagram, whereas an item like cordial is probably more literary (more likely to be written than spoken), whereas an item like cardiac is more scientific (and perhaps more technical as well). If you refer to your heart as your ticker, you have chosen a more colloquial or slangy term.

Stockwell and Minkova (2001) represent the core-periphery distribution in terms of deciles, but with potentially more layers being potentially added (see Figure 3.2 above). They also give statistical correlation between each decide and source of words.

Sources of the most frequent 10,000 words of English


The notion of ‘core vocabulary’ seems to combine a number of the categories that we mentioned earlier in that:

  • core items are more frequently used;
  • core items are likely to be acquired earlier by learners, particularly first-language learners;
  • core items associate easily with other items because they are not specialised (scientific, technical, etc.) – you can probably use hearty with a lot of other items (welcomesoupspeechmealpersonlaugh, etc.), but most of us would only combine cardiac with failure or arrest
  • because core items are not specialised and not used only in particular contexts, they can take on many different levels of meaning – you can use heart to refer to the organ (as in ‘heart transplant’), or the shape (‘he drew hearts on the card’, ‘the Queen of Hearts’), or to refer to passion or compassion (‘have a heart!’, ‘my heart wasn’t in it’) or the mind (‘the heart of man is capable of villainy’) or courage (‘don’t lose heart’), or metaphorically to the essence or core of something (‘the heart of the matter’); it might be used in set phrases like learn by heart (‘memorise’), eat your heart out (‘eat violently (in jealousy)’), heart-to-heart talk (‘sincere conversation’)

Examine the following sentences from Charles Dickens’s David Copperfield. The narrator is the adult David Copperfield and he describes himself as a child.

He asked me if it would suit my convenience to have the light put out; and on my answering ‘yes’, instantly extinguished it.

I … went upstairs with my candle directly. It appeared to my childish fancy, as I ascended to the bedroom …

You might notice the core item put out contrasted to the non-core item extinguished in the first sentence; similarly, went upstairs (core) contrasts with ascended (non-core) in the second sentence. The core items suggest identification with the child (because children learn core items first), and the non-core items suggests a distancing from the child as the narrator employs the literary norms lexically.

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The Joint Admissions and Matriculations Board (JAMB) is a Nigerian entrance examination board for tertiary-level institutions. The board conducts entrance examinations for prospective undergraduates into Nigerian universities.

At this time, something like a thousand kinds of animals (vertebrate animals) can be said to be in danger of extinction. A few of them have been reduced to this precarious position by extensive killing but the majority are disappearing only as fast as the particular kind of un-try they need for existence is itself disappearing: and all this at the hands of man, as often as not by mistake.

There are three species of turtles whose future survival is menaced by the demand for turtle soup, which would hardly justify the extermination of a giant reptile whose family has existed for 200 million years. Leopards are in jeopardy because of the fashion for their skins. As they get rarer, the prices rise and, as leopard skin coats become more expensive, the demand increases.
No species can long survive the price of N60,000 which a half-grown baby leopard now carries on its skin. And crocodiles, the longest surviving reptiles, are now dwindling alarmingly as a result of the fashion in crocodile skin for ladies’ handbags and men’s shoes.
The human population explosion spreads mankind across the land surfaces of the earth at an alarming rate. There will be twice as many of us before most of us are dead. Does this mean no room for wild animals? Of course not. With ingenuity and forethought, a place can be kept for them. To destroy their habitat is as unnecessary as it would be to pull down a great cathedral in order to grow potatoes on the site. A campaign to save what remains is the concern of a new kind of Noah’s Ark – the World Wildlife Fund. It does not believe that all is lost.
1. The basic causes of the elimination of certain animals from the earth include
A. man’s decision to live in cities and the development of large farmlands
B. extensive killing of animals and the fast disappearance of their favourable habitats
C. man’s penchant for meat and the sale of animals for meat and hides
D. a deliberate battle against Nature and the quest for leopard skin.
2. From the passage, the attitude of the writer can be described as.
A. partial
B. optimistic
C. indifferent
D. pessimistic
3. The expression when man evolved a conscience means when
A. man developed an awareness of right and wrong
B. man’s intellect improved tremendously
C. man acquired new habits
D. man became a critical creature.
4. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
A. Man kills animals only when he can afford to do so.
B. Man cannot spare those animals that eat his kind.
C. Man eats all categories of animals.
D. Man poses the greatest threat to Nature.
5. The sentence there will be twice as many of us before most of us are dead means
A. some increase in human and animal population growth rates
B. mankind is fast spreading across the earth
C. many of us will die as a result of population explosion
D. the population growth rate will double before our death.
The 2002 World Cup Competition, also called Korea/Japan 2002, kicked off with a match between the defending champions, France, and the Senegalese national team from Africa.
Nobody had given the Senegalese any chance against the star-studded defending champions but the 1-0 scoreline in favour of Senegal showed that African football can no longer be taken for granted.
This shocking defeat of France had raised Africa’s hopes of going beyond the first round of the tournament. So when the Super Eagles of Nigeria filed out against Argentina on the morning of Sunday, June the second, 2002, many Nigerian football enthusiasts delayed attending church service to watch the match live on television. As expected, the Super Eagles put up strong resistance to the Argentinian challenge and the day would not have ended on a somber note for Nigerians if the momentum had been sustained throughout the match.

The hope of going beyond the first round, though precarious, was very much alive as the Eagles were expected to defeat their next opponents, Sweden and England. But some shortcomings in the Nigerian national team needed to be rectified to brighten their chances against their next opponents.
First, the defence needed to be strengthened to prevent the opponents from incessantly terrorizing the goalkeeper. Then the strikers also needed to improve on their lackluster performance against Argentina, since every Nigerian expected them to overwhelm their next opponents in the opening rounds. Lastly, rather than gamble with unfit players, a more creative use of the reserves would be necessary to smooth the way to the next round.
If World Cup debutants, Senegal ,could nurse the hope of playing in the knock-out stages of the tournament, then the Eagles should soar instead of being intimidated by big names,
for no team is invincible.
6. Which of the following captures the writer’s suggestion on how the Eagles could improve their performance in subsequent matches?
A. Better goalkeeping, a better attack and a stronger midfield.
B. Replacement of injured players, stronger attackers and a rugged defence.
C. Good coaching, more strikers and more defenders.
D. Fair officiating, good goalkeeping and fast players.
7. A suitable title for this passage is
A. African Teams in the 2002 World Cup
B. The FIFA Korea/Japan 2002
C. The Nigerian and the Senegalese Teams
D. The Eagles in World Cup 2002.
8. From the argument in the last paragraph, it can be concluded that the Eagles were
A. more experienced than the Senegalese team
B. not as strong as the Senegalese team.
C. more timid and goal-shy than their opponents
D. not sure of getting to the next round of the tournament.
9. The word debutants, as used in the passage, means
A. hard-fighters
B. under-dogs
C. first-timers
D. giant killers.
10. From the passage, it can be concluded that the writer
A. was optimistic about the chances of the Eagles
B. did not fancy the Eagles’ chances
C. was non-committal about the chances of the Eagles
D. was certain about the Eagles’ chances.
Attitudes towards the smoking of cigarettes and the consumption of alcohol may be used to illustrate typical African ethics. Apart from the fact that smoking has now been linked with lung cancer disease, the African moralist has always regarded smoking as an indication of moral degradation. A number of people have accepted the moralist idea on smoking. Some have refrained from smoking, and those who could influence others, such as parents and religious leaders, have also exerted their influence to prevent others from smoking.
On the other hand, a good many people have remained indifferent to the moralist view and have continued to smoke. The same argument has been applied to the consumption of alcohol. The African moralist, basing his judgement on the behaviour of a few alcoholics, tends to regard the habit of taking alcohol as a sign of wretchedness.
The moralist holds the view that anybody who forms the habit of consuming alcohol will never do well in live. While this may be true in respect of a few people in the society, the fear of the moralist has not been justified. However, the economics is primarily interested in the habit of smoking and the consumption of alcohol in so far as they give satisfaction to smokers and drinkers and so generate supply of and demand for tobacco and alcohol. The economist is interested in knowing how many packets of cigarettes are consumed and to what extent an increase or fall in consumption could affect production that is, supply. Similarly, he is interested in how much beer is consumed and how the supply of beer will adjust to the demand for it. He examines the habits and the pressures which can lead to the readjustment of wants and the reallocation of resources to cover the wants. Some moral principles associated with religion tend to lead on to economic problems.
Followers of certain religions are expected not to consume pork, take alcohol or smoke tobacco. Devotees of some religious groups, on the other hand, can eat pork while others are expected to abstain from alcohol and smoking. Strict observance of these moral rules could cripple the breweries, the cigarette factories and some businesses.
However, there seems to be a growing number of alcohol consumers and cigarette smokers – a development which should be of interest to the economist.
11. The positions maintained by the moralist and the economist can be described as being
A. at variance
B. very agreeable
C. quite indifferent
D. very passionate
12. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
A. People who drink or smoke surely die of cancer.
B. Everyone ignores the moralist view on drinking and smoking.
C. Smoking and drinking may have positive effects on the economy.
D. Total abstinence from drinking and smoking is a religious obligation.
13. It can be concluded from the passage that morality, religion and economy are
A. clearly interconnected
B. certainly different
C. somewhat interconnected
D. certainly unrelated.
14. The view expressed by the writer in the last paragraph is that
A. the number of alcoholics and smokers is certainly increasing
B. more people now abstain from drinking and smoking
C. more people appear to take to drinking and smoking
D. sales of alcohol and tobacco products have improved tremendously.
15. According to the passage, the moralist idea is that
A. it is typically African not to smoke cigarettes
B. people should accept a point of view only when they are convinced
C. smoking is not good but a little alcohol may be permitted
D. the smoking of cigarettes is bad and unacceptable.
The passage below has gaps numbered 16 to 25. Immediately following each gap, four options are provided. Choose the most appropriate option for each gap. A prepared speech is not easy to deliver, especially if it is not written by the presenter. A …16…(A. document B. free C. manuscript D. quantum) delivery is one in which the speech has been written out word for word and is read to …17…(A. a gathering B. a conference C. a congregation D. an audience). This kind of delivery is usually reserved for very …18… (A. formal B. genuine C. impromptu D. guaranteed) occasions when exact wording is …19…(A. conclusive B. critical C. reportive D. speculative), such as the State of the Union Address or speeches before the United Nations General …20…(A. Negotiation B. Organization C. Assembly D. Audience). The primary advantage is that the speech may be highly …21…(A.polished B. advanced C. analogous D. discreet) in terms of word choice, turns of phrase, and development of ideas. The main disadvantage is that this type of delivery is difficult to do well. Reading aloud with meaningful …22…(A. anticipatory B.profuse C. bifocal D. vocal) inflection requires the speaker to be very familiar with the text. If not, the words will come out in a choppy, expressionless way. Such poor delivery could destroy any …23… (A. interactive B. restrictive C. positive D. decisive) effects created by the carefully chosen …24… (A. language B.slang C. dialect D. rhetoric) Lack of familiarity with the …25… (A. exchange B. text C. note D. context) could also prevent the speaker from maintaining eye contact with people being addressed.
In each of questions 26 to 30, select the option that best explains the information conveyed in the sentence. Each question carries.
26. In spite of his humble beginning, Audu now throws his weight around.
A. Audu is arrogant despite his simple upbringing.
B. Despite his obvious poverty, Audu is a proudman.
C. His noble birth notwithstanding, Audu is a corrupt man.
D. From his poor background, Audu is now a rich man.
27. Ngozi has always considered her father to be an impassioned man.
A. Her father is a very lively man.
B. Her father is an emotional man.
C. Her father is a disciplined man.
D. Her father is a very strict man.
28. The elders rebuked Olu for taking issue with his principal.
A. Olu was cautioned for shouting at his principal.
B. Olu was scolded for acting in collusion with his principal.
C. Olu was reprimanded for arguing with his principal.
D. Olu was blamed for issuing a statement denying his principal.
29. The manager paid us in hard currency.
A. We were paid in new notes.
B. We were paid in foreign currency.
C. We were paid in dollars and pound sterling.
D. We were paid in a strong and stable currency.
30. If he went to London, he would see the Queen.
A. When he goes to London, he will see the Queen.
B. He did not go to London and did not see the Queen.
C. He did not see the Queen when he went to London.
D. He would like to see the Queen when he goes to London.
(Questions 31 to 100 carry 1 mark each.)
In each of questions 31 to 45, choose the option opposite in meaning to the word(s) or phrase in italics.
31. Only those who are gullible fall victim to his trickery.
A. saucy B. devastated C. courteous D. astute
32. He is well known for his inordinate ambition.
A. excessive B. passionate C. moderate D. sound
33. Students could be timid.
A. friendly B. bold C. covetous D. pugnacious
34. The witness decided to conceal the evidence.
A. divulge B. hide C. destroy D. pugnacious
35. The members of the congregation were inspired by the sermon.
A. bewitched B. enthralled C. disenchanted D. disorientated
36. Agbenu was ecstatic about her result.
A. dispassionate B. sad C. pessimistic D. mad
37. The labour leader’s recalcitrant stance was applauded.
A. stubborn B. flexible C. uncompromising D. well-informed
38. A cool bath in a hot weather can be truly invigorating.
A. devastating B. unpalatable C. debilitating D. disgusting
39. I am loath to do the assignment.
A. willing B. unwilling C. waiting D. dying
40. Toyin is married to an impatient, self-centered man.
A. a fretful B. a tolerant C. an edgy D. a tolerable
41. Gregarious animals can be found in the zoo.
A. Various B. Wild C. Lonely D. Tame
42. The doctor examined the patient painstakingly.
A. perfunctorily B. professionally C. painfully D. carefully
43. The company has continued to monopolize the distribution of the products.
A. centralize B. specialize C. liberalize D. regularize
44. A conservative estimate put the number of missing persons at forty.
A. A rough B. An accurate C. A primitive D. An incorrect
45. The agency has sworn to deal with all the apostles of confederation.
A. proponents B. protagonists C. apostates D. opponents.
In each of questions 46 to 60, choose the option nearest in meaning to word(s) or phrase in italics.
46. The leader has the unstinting support of his party.
A. unsparing B. laudable C. uninspiring D. cautious.
47. The party supporters vilified the Chairman for the role he played in the crisis that rocked the party.
A. elected. B. challenged C. condemned D. impeached
48. The company is to shed three thousand staff this year.
A. demote B. lay off C. throw up D. placate
49. There was a glut of oil on the market.
A. a variety of B. an accumulation of C. an abundance of D. an increase in
50. A few years ago, nobody would have believed that the economy would turn around.
A. deteriorate B. improve C. stagnate D. change
51. Before announcing his retirement, Ochima resolved to settle on account with the bank.
A. pay back all he owes B. close his account with C. retire his loans from D. get back at
52. The boys knew that a storm was imminent.
A. possible B. impending C. threatening D. encroaching
53. The nurse was in favour of voluntary euthanasia.
A. a painless death B. a simple operation C. a sleeping pill D. a major operation
54. The cynics feared that the nation’s nascent democracy would fail.
A. pessimists B. delinquents C. critics D. illusionists
55. The essence of governance is to seek the good and well-being of the majority of the people.
A. importance B. goal C. characteristic D. secret
56. From what she said, one may infer that she does not like the course.
A. suppose B. realize C. deduce D. agree
57. He shared his room with a person whose behavior was quite nauseating.
A. disrespectful B. disgraceful C. discouraging D. disgusting
58. The carpenter built a commodious wardrobe.
A. gigantic B. small C. spacious D. wide
59. Publishing as a business venture has become a hot potato in Nigeria.
A. unpleasant B. profitable C. unacceptable D. expensive
60. The man’s story sounded plausible to his audience.
A. fantastic B. credulous C. credible D. entertaining
In each of questions 61 to 85, fill each gap with the most appropriate option from the list provided.
61. ‘I can’t stand people prying into my private life’, Ladi said. ‘…,’ (A. Me neither B. Me too C. I also D. Likewise myself) agreed Agbenu.
62. The sergeant spoke to me in a … (A. coerce B. coarse C. course D. causal) manner.
63. The reason why he was not offered admission was …(A. because B. that  C. when D. owning to) his results could not be found.
64. Adika… (A. receive B. receives C. has received D. had received) a message from the club regularly.
65. Three quarters of the people in the village … killed but only half of their huts … ( A.
were/was B. were/were C. was/was) affected.
66. If you saw the photograph of the man, … (A. can B. will C. would D. could) you be able to identify him?
67. It is bad to take… (A. someone else’s B. someone’s else C. someone’s else’s  D. someone elses’) property without permission.
68. As Obande does not know anyone in this city, he hopes that some kind… (A. men B.
individuals C. man D. inhabitants) will put him up for the night.
69. Be careful not to… (A lose B. loose C. loss D. lost) this money.
70. How is the new editor… (A. pushing B. going C. getting D. moving) on with his work?
71. Nowadays, many graduates are not well disposed to teaching,… (A. do they? B. they are? C. aren’t they? D. are they?)
72. The armed robbers went into the house and robbed the three… (A. women’s occupants B.
women occupants C. woman occupants D. woman’s occupants).
73. It is often… that inflation… (A. say/resulted B. said/result  C. said/results D. say/result) from too much money chasing very few goods.
74. If you would do me this favour, I … (A. will B. shall C. would D. should) be very grateful.
75. I have the … (A. privilege B. priviledge C. privilege D. privilege) of meeting the President.
76. My classmate,… (A. that B. whose C. whom D. which) I haven’t seen for years, wrote to me last week.
77. Four weeks… (A. has been B. are C. were D. is) enough for the police to conclude their investigation.
78. The woman is one of the … (A. elitists B. elites C. elite D. elitist) of the society.
79. The doctor asked the patient what … (A. is the problem B. the problem was C. the problem is D. is your problem).
80. He put… (A. a white dozen eggs B. dozen white eggs C. a dozen white eggs D. white dozen eggs) in a basket.
81. Idakwo ran… (A. lest he almost B. lest he will C. lest he should. D. lest he may) miss the train.
82. Course … (A. material B. materials C. material’s D. materials’) writers are to reflect local colour.
83. It was a free-for-all and the students were blamed for taking the law… (A. into their hands B. in their hands C. into their own hands D. in their own hands).
84. Ali plays… (A. their B. some C. a D. the) violin with remarkable skill.
85. The candidate’s charisma should be a…(A. determinable B. determining  C. determinant D. determinate) factor in winning the election.
In each of questions 86 to 88, choose the option that has the same vowel sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.
86. colonel
A. gaol B. colony C. golden D. girl
87. tend
A. jeopardy B. turned C. earned D. caned
88. market
A. get B. mortgage C. enter D. bachelor
In each of questions 89 to 91, choose the option that has a different vowel sound from the others.
89. A dear B. fair C. bear D. there
90. A. hope B. cost C. coast D. won’t
91. A. naught B. north C. spot D. law
In each of questions 92 to 94, choose the option that has the same consonant sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.
92. concrete
A. attend B. anxious C. concern D. consider
93. chalet
A. college B. chemical C. chairman D. champagne
94. teeth
A. though B. taught C. thought D. tank
In each of questions 95 and 96, choose the option that has a different consonant sound from the others.
95. A. shoe B. ocean C. chef D. chief
96. A. laugh B. off C. wife D. of
In each of questions 97 and 98, choose the option that has the same stress pattern as the given word.
97. cement
A. employ (noun) B. interest C. perfect (adjective) D. include
98. typist
A. rebel (verb) B. superb C. refuse (noun) D. propose
In each of questions 99 and 100, the word in capital letters has the emphatic stress. Choose the option to which the sentence relates.
99. My MOTHER served rice and fresh fish stew for dinner.
A. What of kind of meal did your mother serve for dinner?
B. Did your mother serve rice and fresh fish stew for lunch?
C. What kind of stew did your mother serve for dinner?
D. Who served rice and fresh fish stew for dinner?
100. The President SPOKE to the press.
A. Who spoke to the press? B. to? C. Did the President speak to the press? D. Did the President write to the press?
1 :- which of the following statements can be concluded from the passage?
formal education enhances the all round development
2 :- according to the passage, effective teaching is said to have taken place only if
learners are closely monitored and evaluated
3 :- the writer of the passage is of the view that teaching , learning and evaluation are
4 :- from the passage, it can be deduced that for effective teaching to take place
a teacher must establish a definitive target
5 :- the word, cognizant as used in the passage means
6 :- the streets were often ??..
devoid of
7 :- the ususal hustle of ????? that characterizes city life.
8 :- until he came near a ??..
filling stations
9 :- there he would find long ???.. Of hapharzardly parked vehicles
10 :- waiting to buy non-existent fiuel from the idle ??? ..
11 :- even car owners used the few ?..
12 :- the buses of which had increaded the ??????.
13 :- though this could be very annoying ????.
14 :- should not blame the drivers for high ??
15 :- because he had to pay through the nose to procure fuel at the ????.
black market
16 :- at the richardsons country home, mrs richardson’s cats were named
gita and paddington
17 :- simon was able to re-establish contact with tayo through
18 :- mr murdoch and tayo’s father were
colleagues at work
19 :- one thing edward and vanessa wanted from suleiman was to
complete his university education
20 :- “but relationships are also about family”. From the excerpt above, it can be deduced that
parents of spouses must improve their relationship
21 :- “and I suppose that these lonely londoners will tell me why I shouldn’t look at the english girls”. The
statement above was made by
22 :- from the novel, it should be gathered that the piglet, tiger and paddington were
adorable cats
23 :- in the novel, the encounter with the police after the party showed that
many africans got in and out of prison daily
24 :- which of these themes featured prominently in the novel?
colonialism, war and family ties
25 :- according to the novel, vanessa left dakar in 1975 because
my mother was very ill
26 :- the bride clings to her mother’s apron strings
the bride is under the control of the mother
27 :- he would have won the decision if he had prepared very well
he did not win the election for lack of preparation
28 :- ahmad did at isa’s behest
he did it at isa’s order
29 :- the chairman is proud his party is in the van
his party is in a leading position
30 :- some people always sit on the fence in political matters
they always remain literal
31 :- the rain lulled him to sleep
32 :- the slipper was packed in opaque leather
33 :- everyone see seun was a genius
a dunce
34 :- the tone of the speech was upheat.
35 :- ola was a little cocky because he was winning
36 :- the newspaper published repugnant slurs
37 :- the recititude of this principle is in contention
38 :- aisha flicked open the file
quickly and suddenly
39 :- lami’s auspicious smile encouraged me
40 :- toki will be livid if she finds out
41 :- whenever I see my uncle
he asks me about my progress in school
42 :- boarders may receive visitors ? the housemaster is informed
43 :- when amadu received his first pay, he bought himself ?shirt
a new green nylon
44 :- the manager was not comfortable ? the clerk’s suggestions
45 :- politicians often make false promises when they ? for votes
46 :- he acted in ? of the order
47 :- the luggage? carried upstairs
have been
48 :- I will just ? out this cloth and hang it up
49 :- ragged posters hang ? the walls
50 :- we incurred a ? on the house sale

51 :- pull
52 :- soup
53 :- brawn
54 :- bath
55 :- reverse
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